||The focal issue in this thesis is feminist discourses on motherhood. In Taiwan feminist texts, local feminists’attitudes toward motherhood are ambiguous. They mainly treated motherhood as a social and cultural problem, without exploring and discovering the physical and psychological meanings. However, the issue of surrogate motherhood forces feminists to face the radical level of motherhood—body and reproduction. Most of the Taiwan feminists believe surrogate motherhood is a new way of women’s oppression of patriarchal motherhood. But some others argue surrogate motherhood will shake the patriarchy in a fundamental way.
To reconsider motherhood radically, I reread Adrienne Rich’s Of Woman Born and Shulamith Firestone’s The Dialectic of Sex. Rich has critically pondered her own experiences of motherhood radically both in terms of physiology and psychology. She believes that the motherhood could be powerful and enjoyable, but the patriarchal institution has made it suffering. Therefore she goes on exploring the stigmatized potentials of motherhood. On the contrary, Firestone thinks motherhood is repressive in itself. She argues reproduction is the original division of labor. Only the technology of artificial reproduction can liberate women from the root of women’s oppression. Although Rich’s and Firestone’s viewpoints are different and even opposite, both of them mean to empowering women and mothers. Their radical arguments are worth reconsidering to enrich and enlarge local feminist perspectives on motherhood.